Lithuanian lands were united under MINDAUGAS in 1236; over the next century, through alliances and conquest, Lithuania extended its territory to include most of present-day Belarus and Ukraine. By the end of the 14th century Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. An alliance with Poland in 1386 led the two countries into a union through the person of a common ruler. In 1569, Lithuania and Poland formally united into a single dual state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Lithuania is a member of the EU, so their currency is euro. Always exchange money in banks and exchange bureaus since they offer far better rates.
For UG, HSC (12th) with minimum 55% marks and for PG, First Degree With Minimum 65% Marks in related Steam.The Constitution of Lithuania mandates ten-year education ending at age 16 and guarantees a free public higher education for students deemed ‘good’.The Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania proposes national educational policies and goals that are then voted for in the Seimas. Laws govern long-term educational strategy along with general laws on standards for higher education, vocational training, law and science, adult education, and special education. 5.4% of GDP or 15.4% of total public expenditure was spent for education in 2016.
According to the World Bank, the literacy rate among Lithuanians aged 15 years and older is 100%.School attendance rates are above EU average and school leave is less common than in the EU. According to Eurostat Lithuania leads among other countries of EU by people with secondary education (93.3%).Based on OECD data, Lithuania is among the top 5 countries in the world by postsecondary (tertiary) education attainment.As of 2016, 54.9% of the population aged 25 to 34, and 30.7% of the population aged 55 to 64 had completed tertiary education. The share of tertiary-educated 25–64 year-olds in STEM (Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields in Lithuania were above the OECD average (29% and 26% respectively), similarly to business, administration and law
Since Lithuania declared the restoration of its independence on 11 March 1990, it has maintained strong democratic traditions. It held its first independent general elections on 25 October 1992, in which 56.75% of voters supported the new constitution. There were intense debates concerning the constitution, particularly the role of the president. A separate referendum was held on 23 May 1992 to gauge public opinion on the matter, and 41% of voters supported the restoration of the President of Lithuania.Through compromise, a semi-presidential system was agreed on. The Lithuanian head of state is the president, directly elected for a five-year term and serving a maximum of two terms. The president oversees foreign affairs and national security, and is the commander-in-chief of the military. The president also appoints the prime minister and, on the latter’s nomination, the rest of the cabinet, as well as a number of other top civil servants and the judges for all courts.
The current Lithuanian head of state, Dalia Grybauskaitė was elected on 17 May 2009, becoming the first female president in the country’s history, and the second female head of state in the Baltic States after Latvia elected their first female political leader in 1999. Dalia Grybauskaitė was re-elected for a second term in 2014.
Lithuania’s climate, which ranges between maritime and continental, is relatively mild. Average temperatures on the coast are −2.5 °C (27.5 °F) in January and 16 °C (61 °F) in July. In Vilnius the average temperatures are −6 °C (21 °F) in January and 17 °C (63 °F) in July. During the summer, 20 °C (68 °F) is common during the day while 14 °C (57 °F) is common at night; in the past, temperatures have reached as high as 30 or 35 °C (86 or 95 °F). Some winters can be very cold. −20 °C (−4 °F) occurs almost every winter. Winter extremes are −34 °C (−29 °F) in coastal areas and −43 °C (−45 °F) in the east of Lithuania.
The average annual precipitation is 800 mm (31.5 in) on the coast, 900 mm (35.4 in) in the Samogitia highlands and 600 mm (23.6 in) in the eastern part of the country. Snow occurs every year, it can snow from October to April. In some years sleet can fall in September or May. The growing season lasts 202 days in the western part of the country and 169 days in the eastern part. Severe storms are rare in the eastern part of Lithuania but common in the coastal areas.
Lithuania received its first railway connection in the middle of the 19th century, when the Warsaw – Saint Petersburg Railway was constructed. It included a stretch from Daugavpils via Vilnius and Kaunas to Virbalis. The first and only still operating tunnel was completed in 1860
Lithuanian Railways’ main network consists of 1,762 km (1,095 mi) of 1,520 mm (4 ft 11.8 in) Russian gauge railway of which 122 km (76 mi) are electrified. This railway network is incompatible with European standard gauge and requires train switching. However, Lithuanian railway network also has 115 km (71 mi) of standard gauge lines. More than half of all inland freight transported in Lithuania is carried by rail. The Trans-European standard gauge Rail Baltica railway, linking Helsinki–Tallinn–Riga–Kaunas–Warsaw and continuing on to Berlin is under construction. In 2017, Lietuvos Geležinkeliai, a company that operates most railway lines in Lithuania, received EU penalty for breaching EU’s antitrust laws and restricting competition.
When it comes to safety, many claim that countries in the eastern part of Europe are much safer than popular European destinations such as Paris or London. It is known as a relatively safe place to visit, with a low crime rate. However, there are places that you should avoid because the risk is slightly higher. Actually, in Vilnius, the capital city, the authorities publish lists containing the names of clubs and other locations that have been reported for the highest crime rate.
Many have even reported Lithuania as highly civilized compared to other countries nearby such as Russia, Bulgaria or Romania, since not many unpleasant situations can happen apart from an occasional scam or pickpocketing.
Cepelinai, potato dumplings stuffed with meat, curd cheese or mushrooms, is the most famous national dish. Lithuania is the only country in the world with its own official scent, called the Scent of Lithuania. Lithuanian seasides are famous for the amber found on the shores of the Baltic Sea.
Lithuania imports 70% of its power, mostly from Sweden, and the average price of electricity is among the highest in the EU. In 2015, transmission lines connected Lithuania to Sweden (700MW) and Poland (500MW).
As a result of a thousand-years history, Lithuania has two National days. First one is the Statehood Day on 6 July, marking the establishment of the medieval Kingdom of Lithuania by Mindaugas in 1253. Creation of modern Lithuanian state is commemorated on 16 February as a Lithuanian State Reestablishment Day on which declaration of independence from Russia and Germany was declared in 1918. Joninės (previously known as Rasos) is a public holiday with paganic roots that celebrates a solstice. As of 2018, there are 13 public holidays (which come with a day off).
Kaziuko mugė is an annual fair held since the beginning of the 17th century that commemorates the anniversary of Saint Casimir’s death and gathers thousands of visitors and many craftsmen. Other notable festivals are Vilnius International Film Festival, Kauno Miesto Diena, Klaipėda Sea Festival, Mados infekcija, Vilnius Book Fair, Vilnius Marathon, Devilstone Open Air, Apuolė 854 [lt], Great Žemaičių Kalvarija Festival.
Lithuania has a well developed communications infrastructure. The country has 2,8 million citizensand 5 million SIM cards. The largest LTE (4G) mobile network covers 97% of Lithuania’s territory. Usage of fixed phone lines has been rapidly decreasing due to rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services.
In 2017, Lithuania was top 30 in the world by average mobile broadband speeds and top 20 by average fixed broadband speeds. Lithuania was also top 7 in 2017 in the List of countries by 4G LTE penetration. In 2016, Lithuania was ranked 17th in United Nations’ e-participation index.
There are four TIER III datacenters in Lithuania Lithuania is 44th globally ranked country on data center density according to Cloudscene.
Long-term project (2005–2013) – Development of Rural Areas Broadband Network (RAIN) was started with the objective to provide residents, state and municipal authorities and businesses with fibre-optic broadband access in rural areas. RAIN infrastructure allows 51 communications operators to provide network services to their clients. The project was funded by the European Union and the Lithuanian government. 72% of Lithuanian households have access to internet, a number which in 2017 was among EU’s lowest and in 2016 ranked 97th by CIA World Factbook. Number of households with internet access is expected to increase and reach 77% by 2021. Almost 50% of Lithuanians had smartphones in 2016, a number that is expected to increase to 65% by 2022. Lithuania has the highest FTTH (Fiber to the home) penetration rate in Europe (36.8% in September 2016) according to FTTH Council Europe.
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